The Pagan Origins of the Book of Genesis - All three parts together - Part 3 is New!

By John Bedson

This is the first of a series of articles showing how the authors of the Biblical book of Genesis borrowed many of their key themes and stories from writings of pagan priests and storytellers of the surrounding nations of the Ancient Near East (ANE).

The pagan cuneiform inscriptions containing these myths are up to two and a half thousand years older than the earliest possible date of the origin of Genesis.

I will examine translations of the original cuneiform writings and show multiple links with Genesis. My conclusion will be that Genesis cannot be considered to be an inspired production of the Christadelphian God, because it is merely a reworking of older pagan theological material.

Ancient scribes reused older
creation accounts, but substituted
the names of their own gods
in place of the original gods.
This was normal in the ANE. Each culture and civilisation did not invent their own history and cosmology. Instead they borrowed from earlier cultures and inserted the names of their own gods to replace the previous ones. This is what happened with the writing of Genesis. The Hebrew names of God such as Elohim and Yahweh were copy/pasted into pagan stories and presented as the origin of the World and of the Jewish people.
To our modern way of thinking this would seem to be trickery and deception. But in the ANE that was accepted as normal. The earlier civilisations were thought to know the truth about how the Earth and man were created and how it was later destroyed by a great flood. That was the science and cosmology of the time and they wanted to preserve that wisdom. The newer writers saw their work as correcting the previous accounts by substituting the names of their own gods; but they did not substantially alter the key details of the earlier narratives.
Therefore the most valuable texts for us are the original writings that predated all others. If we can find the origins of the Biblical book of Genesis in those writings, the idea that a thousand years later the Hebrew God inspired Genesis will be proved to be false. If the very first book of the Bible is shown to be the product of ancient pagan priests and plagiarist Hebrew scribes, the veracity of rest of the Bible will be suspect.

The Sumerians

The location of Sumer
The original texts were produced by the Sumerians. They dominated the cultural and literary scene in the ANE from approximately 3500 to  2000 B. C. Here is what Professor Samuel Noah Kramer, the world's leading expert on these texts, wrote of these remarkable people:
"The Sumerians were a non-Semitic, non-Indo-European people who flourished in southern
Babylonia from the beginning of the fourth to the end of the third millennium B. C. During this long stretch of time the Sumerians, whose racial and linguistic affiliations are still unclassifiable, represented the dominant cultural group of the entire Near East. This cultural dominance manifested itself in three directions:

1. It was the Sumerians who developed and probably invented the cuneiform system of writing which was adopted by nearly all the peoples of the Near East and without which the cultural progress of western Asia would have been largely impossible.
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2. The Sumerians developed religious and spiritual concepts together with a remarkably well integrated pantheon which influenced profoundly all the peoples of the Near East, including the Hebrews and the Greeks. Moreover, by way of Judaism, Christianity, and Mohammedanism, not a few of these spiritual and religious concepts have permeated the modern civilized world.

3. The Sumerians produced a vast and highly developed literature, largely poetic in character, consisting of epics and myths, hymns and lamentations, proverbs and "words of wisdom." These compositions are inscribed in cuneiform script on clay tablets which date largely from approximately 1750 B. C. In the course of the past hundred years, approximately five thousand such literary pieces have been excavated in the mounds of ancient Sumer....."

- 'Sumerian Mythology' by Samuel Noah Kramer.

The Sumerian myths date to a minimum of 1,000 years before the Genesis account was written. It was THE cosmology of the day and THE science of the day. It influenced the later Chaldean and Babylonian cultures and from them spread far and wide to many other cultures in the surrounding nations including the Assyrians, Hittites, Hurrians, Akkadians, Elamites and Canaanites. It found its way through Hebrew scribes into the record of Genesis.
Abraham and his family came from Ur, which on three different occasions was the capital city of Sumer. Abraham was NOT a Semite; he was a Sumerian. In Genesis 24: 3-4 Abraham sent his servant to Sumer to bring back a wife for Isaac, because he did not want him to marry a Semite. The ancient proto-Hebrews were Sumerians and Genesis is influenced by Abraham's Sumerian cosmology, science and theological thinking.
Therefore there are two independent routes whereby Sumerian cosmology infected the Bible:

1. By early and direct transference from Sumer by Abraham and his Sumerian family.

2. By absorption from Akkadian culture. Akkadian was the universal literary language of Israel and its environs throughout the 2nd Millennium BCE. Akkadian cosmology and science came from Sumer. ('The Sumerians' Kramer page 385)

The Creation account in Sumerian mythology and Genesis
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I want to begin our investigation of these texts by considering the Sumerian beliefs about the creation of the Earth and of the Universe. Of course "the Universe" to the Sumerians was a far smaller place than the Universe revealed to us by modern science.
Before the creation of the Earth and the Universe the Sumerians taught that there was only a totally dark, primeval and boundless sea. Nothing else. There was no Earth. Earth had no form or existence of any sort. There was no dry land. There were no lights in the sky. The original sea went on for infinity and had always existed from infinity.
In a tablet which gives a list of the Sumerian gods, the goddess Nammu, written with the ideogram for "sea," is described as "the mother, who gave birth to heaven and earth." Heaven and earth were therefore conceived by the Sumerians as the created products of the primeval sea.

The Sumerian myth "Cattle and Grain" begins with the following two lines:
After on the mountain of heaven and earth,
An had caused the Anunnaki (his followers) to be born. . . .

Therefore, after their creation from the sea, heaven and earth to the Sumerians was originally one united thing; a mountain. The key thing that I want you to note is that the two were united into one form. Heaven and earth were a mountain surrounded by the primeval boundless waters of the sea. But all was still in darkness because no light had been created.
Conceived as gods in human form, "An" (heaven) was male and Ki (earth) was female. They were together and united. From their union was begotten the air-god Enlil.
Genesis chapter one begins with an account that is closely similar to the Sumerian account of creation:
"In the beginning, God created the heaven and the earth."
The first verse of the Bible tells us that he created one thing called "heaven and earth." They were united because the "firmament" that separated them (verses 6-7) had not yet been created.    
One of the primary sources for the Sumerian conception of the creation of the universe is the introductory passage to a Sumerian poem which Kramer entitled "Gilgamesh, Enkidu, and the Nether World."
It must be remembered that these cuneiform clay tablets were not discovered in a brand new condition. The tablets were often broken or chipped and sometimes many tablets are missing altogether. We are lucky to have any of them. Therefore if at times the translation seems to be broken and missing, it is because that is how the tablets are in their present condition. 

The Sumerian wind or spirit god
Enlil (left) was the divine power
of Sumerian Creation myth.
The 'Spirit of God' is the Genesis
equivalent. Enlil is depicted
holding the Tree of Life 
It reads:
After heaven had been moved away from earth,
After earth had been separated from heaven,
After the name of man had been fixed;

After An had carried off heaven,
After Enlil had carried off earth,
Here we are told that heaven and earth were separated when the Sumerian heaven god An carried off heaven, while his son, the god Enlil carried off the earth.
A division between the two was created, in which the wind god Enlil could move freely - in the air.
"Enlil" is a combination of two different Sumerian words. "En" = "god" and "Lil" = "Wind" or "Spirit."
Genesis 1:2 states:
"And the earth was without form and void and darkness was upon the face of the deep (waters). And the Sprit of God (Ruach-Elohim) moved upon the face of the waters."
We have to think of the Sumerian and Hebrew original words; not the English translation. "The Spirit of God" in Genesis 1:2 is "Ruach-Elohim." "Ruach" = Spirit" and "Elohim" = "God."
In the Hebrew Bible "Spirit" or Ruach ר֫וּח is translated as follows: air (2) Spirit (76), spirit (127), spirits (3), wind (98), winds (7), windy (2), and with other English words. (Strong's concordance).
Note the 107 instances where it is translated "wind" or "winds."
The cuneiform written clay
tablet that records Enlil
separating the earth and heaven
Therefore it is not unreasonable to say that in Genesis 1:2 the "wind of God" moved upon the waters.
This is identical to the Sumerian creation account, where the Sumerian god Enlil, the god of the wind, who moved over the original infinite boundless sea before the separation of the Earth, was the god who separated the Earth and Heaven by creating a firmament to divide them, and create the Sumerian universe.
It was not Yahweh, or El or even the Elohim. It was the divine wind that moved over the deep prior to creation. The stories are similar. A divine wind moved over the deep in both the pagan Sumerian creation myth and the Hebrew creation account in Genesis 1.
The Sumerian god Enlil mated with his wife Ninlil and the moon god Nanna was born. Nanna, the moon-god, and his wife Ningal were the parents of Utu, the sun-god. Thus light was created in the Sumerian universe.

The Spirit god Enlil continued to be one of the most important gods in the Sumerian pantheon for over a thousand years. The curious Biblical character "The Spirit of God" or "The Holy Spirit" that runs throughout Scripture is derived the Sumerian Enlil original. There is no such power as "The Holy Sprit"; it is based on a pagan myth.  
Let us look at some of the similarities between the early Genesis account and the Sumerian records:

Enlil, seated right, creates the Sun,
Moon and stars, shown to the upper left.
1. Both accounts begin with the primeval sea.
2. Both accounts have darkness as the original state.
3. Both accounts have the heaven and earth created as a unity.
4. Both accounts have a divine wind or spirit moving over the waters.
5. Both accounts have this divine spirit power active in creation.
6. Both accounts recount the division of earth from heaven by a firmament.
7. Both accounts indicate that it was the divine spirit that caused this division.
8. Both accounts explain how light was brought into the creation.

9. Both Sumerian theology and the Bible continue with this theme of a spirit power after creation. But in both cases the spirit power is subservient to the principal god. The chief god in Sumerian mythology was An (the god of heaven) and Yahweh (the God in Heaven) was superior to the Holy Spirit in the Bible. 

10. Both Sumerian theology and the Bible show the spirit god operating on earth and in the air, but not in heaven.

Future articles will show dozens more similarities between the Sumerian and Genesis accounts which demonstrate that the later Genesis narrative was derived from earlier Sumerian myths and not from the supernatural God of the Christadelphians.
Video documentaries on the Sumerians and their religion



The Pagan Origins of the Book of Genesis - Part 2: The Creation of the Firmament (Dome) and the Waters Above

Genesis Chapter 1 - New Revised Standard Version (NRSV)

The pagan cosmology of Genesis
"6 And God said, ‘Let there be a dome in the midst of the waters, and let it separate the waters from the waters.’ 7 So God made the dome and separated the waters that were under the dome from the waters that were above the dome. And it was so. 8 God called the dome Sky............................

........14 And God said, ‘Let there be lights in the dome of the sky to separate the day from the night; and let them be for signs and for seasons and for days and years, 15 and let them be lights in the dome of the sky to give light upon the earth.’ And it was so. 16 God made the two great lights—the greater light to rule the day and the lesser light to rule the night—and the stars. 17 God set them in the dome of the sky to give light upon the earth.....................and let birds fly above the earth across the dome of the sky."

Genesis 1:6 introduces an immense problem for Christadelphians. What is the "Dome" referred to as created by God in the New Revised Standard Version; or "Vault" in the New International Version; or "Canopy" in the International Standard Version; or "Firmament" in the King James version?

How could it separate and suspend an entire ocean of water above the Earth from the oceans below? How many trillions of tons of weight of water would it have to support to prevent it crashing down on the planet?

How could it be possible to set the Sun, Moon and all of the stars and hundreds of thousands of billions of galaxies in the entire universe "in" the dome that supports the ocean that is suspended in outer space?   

Finally; how was it possible for the birds to fly "across the dome?" That would mean that the dome was set so low above the Earth that birds could fly up to it. The Hebrew reads "across the face of the dome."   

Needless to say, this section of Genesis contradicts all that modern science teaches us about cosmology. We know that what we are being told here in the Bible is impossible. There never was an ocean in space, held up by a dome that contained all of the stars that birds could fly up to and visit!

But it would have all made perfect sense to the pagan Sumerian priests who invented the story of a sky dome holding up an ocean of water floating in outer space, over a thousand years before Genesis was written. They would have recognised the story as their own. They would not be fooled into thinking that the Hebrew God inspired the narrative; because they would have known that they inspired and invented the story themselves.

Ancient Sumerian hymns and myths provide a picture of the universe's (anki) creation. The Sumerians believed that a primeval sea (abzu) existed before anything else and that the heaven (an) and the earth (ki) were formed within it. The boundary between the primeval sea and the earth (a flat disk) was a solid vault, within which was the gas-like atmosphere (Lil). The stars, planets, sun, and moon were embedded in this solid vault. (1) Each of the four major Sumerian deities was associated with one of these regions; An (god of heaven), Ki (goddess of earth, also known as Ninhursag, Ninmah, or Nintu), Enlil (god of the air, son of An and Ki), and Enki (god of the primeval sea). According to their myths, An and Ki were the progenitors of most of the gods. (1)

In the first part of this series we noted that the Sumerian God Enlil separated the Earth from the Heaven, which were originally united.

For example in the Sumerian myth "The Creation of the Pickaxe"

Enlil, who brings up the seed of the land from the earth,

Took care to move away heaven from earth,

Took care to move away earth from heaven.

This is what was happening in Genesis 1:6. The dome or firmament was lifted up to separate Heaven from the Earth.

The Sumerians believed that the sky was a solid object, probably made of tin. Their word for tin was "Metal of Heaven." All of the ancient peoples believed that the sky was solid and that it was a dome that arched over the Earth, which they thought was flat and reached down at the sides.

It was not until approximately the year 200 AD in China and 1550 AD in Europe that civilised peoples began to realise that the sky was not a solid object. They believed that the Sun Moon and stars were set in the solid dome or moved underneath it. 

Click here for an excellent essay on this subject if you are interested in further study on the subject of the solid sky dome in ancient cosmology.. 

The Hebrew word for "Dome" or "Firmament" in Genesis is "Raqia." It's verb means "to beat out" or "to spread out" as one might beat out a piece of tin to form a bowl.

The word "firmament" ("Firm" - ament) implies a "firm", solid material, coming from the Latin word "firmamentum," from Jerome's Latin Vulgate translation of the Bible. The Latin word firmamentum has the meaning of a "support," or "prop."

Ezekiel chapter one conveys a vision of cherubim under the firmament which is described for us:

"And the likeness of the firmament upon the heads of the living creature was as the colour of the terrible crystal." - Ezekiel 1:22.

But Heaven was above this firmament for he continues:

"And above the firmament that was over their heads was ......................the likeness of the glory of the LORD." - Ezekiel 1:26-28.

The Universe of the ancient pagans
Genesis claims that it was created by the Biblical God!

The Jews also endorsed solid dome cosmology, For example, Josephus, the Jewish first century Jewish historian, believed that the earth was surrounded by a crystalline firmament:

"After this, on the second day, he placed the heaven over the whole world, and separated it from the other parts, and he determined it should stand by itself. He also placed a crystalline [firmament] round it, and put it together in a manner agreeable to the earth, and fitted it for giving moisture and rain, and for affording the advantage of dews."  (2)
The Jewish Talmud indicates that the Sun travelled under the firmament by day and above the firmament by night:

"The learned of Israel say, "The sphere stands firm, and the planets revolve"; the learned of the nations say, "The sphere moves, and the planets stand firm." The learned of Israel say, "The sun moves by day beneath the firmament, and by night above the firmament"; the learned of the nations say, "The sun moves by day beneath the firmament, and by night beneath the earth." (3)
In Job 37:18 we read:

"Can you join him (God) in spreading out the skies, hard as a mirror of cast bronze?" (NRSV)

In those days mirrors were not made of glass but of metal. Job is telling is that God spread out the sky like a hard, solid, metal sheet; which is the dome or firmament conceived of by the Sumerians and a concept copied by all ancient peoples; including the writers of Genesis.

In Job 22:14 we are told that God walks on the dome:

"Thick clouds enwrap him, so that he does not see, and he walks on the dome of heaven.” (NRSV)

Of course it is all nonsense. If there were a solid dome in the sky, our space rockets would crash into it. The writers of Genesis had no more idea what they were talking about than the pagan Sumerian priests who invented the idea. It is further evidence that Genesis is not an anti-pagan polemic, or an account of how God created the world. Genesis is reworked pagan myth, legend and faulty cosmology with the names of the Hebrew God substituted for the pagan gods to fool the Hebrews into thinking that their God was the creator.   
Genesis 1:7 claims that God created
an ocean in outer space!
The Ocean in Outer Space

But even more bizarre than the idea of a solid dome in the sky, is the claim in Genesis that God took half of the water on Earth and created an ocean in outer space above the firmament.

"So God made the dome and separated the waters that were under the dome from the waters that were above the dome." - Genesis 1:7. (NRSV)

Psalm 148:4 says the same thing:

"Praise him, you highest heavens and you waters above the skies." (NRSV)

We know that this is also nonsense and that there is no sea in the sky and no evidence that there ever was. The Genesis writers must have lifted the idea from earlier and original pagan creation myths and worked it into the Hebrew creation story.

The idea of an ocean of water above the dome of the sky was so strange that so far as we know, it was not a common belief in the ancient world. If a primitive human looked up at the sky, either in the day or night, he might well have concluded that it was a solid dome stretching down to the horizon. But there was nothing to be observed that might make him think that there was a sea above the sky.

Nevertheless, the mystery of where the Genesis writers gained their inspiration has been solved. It was not from God; it was from Sumer. In 1849,  the English archaeologist, Sir Austen Henry Layard, while working in  the ruined Library of Ashurbanipal at Nineveh in Iraq, discovered seven clay cuneiform tablets with approximately one thousand lines of text of a pagan Mesopotamian creation story. They were translated and published in 1876 by George Smith.

Two of the seven Enuma Elish tablets
Other fragmentary copies have since been discovered at other locations including one from Turkey. Parts of the story are still missing. 

The version from Ashurbanipal's library dates to the 7th century BCE; which would coincide with the Jewish exile in Babylon which is when Genesis is thought to have been redacted and edited together into its final format. So the Hebrew Biblical scribes could have been familiar with Enûma Eliš.

Layard's version of Enûma Eliš is certainly a copy of copy of a copy going back many hundreds of years. Some scholars believe that the original story must have been composed about the time of Hammurabi (approximately 1,800 BCE) which puts it back into Sumerian times. But whenever it is dated, it is pagan and pre-Genesis. 

Called the Enûma Eliš, the tablets contain numerous parallels with the Genesis account of creation. they are written in a complex form of poetry; rather like the Genesis 1 account.

The first parallel is that their creation story is contained on six tablets with the creating god Marduk resting in the seventh and receiving praise. This may be the source of the six days of creation in Genesis followed by a seventh of rest. - Or it may be coincidence

The second parallel is the start of tablet one where before the beginning of creation the god of fresh water and goddess of salt water are mingled together in a primeval sea; just as Genesis begins with "the deep" and the Earth is "without form and void."

"When in the height heaven was not named,

And the Earth beneath did not yet bear a name,

And the primeval Apsu, who begat them,

And chaos, Tiamut, the mother of them both

Their waters were mingled together,

And no field was formed, no marsh was to be seen;" (4)

Marduk battles Tiamut, goddess of the sea;
before dividing her in two and placing half
of her waters in heaven
But it is the third parallel that is of most interest to us. At the end of tablet four, Marduk kills the goddess Tiamut, the goddess of seawater, who was herself a vast body of seawater, divides her waters in two and creates heaven and earth from the two halves. But because she is seawater, he took precautions to ensure that her half that became an ocean in outer space, did not rain down to Earth.

Then the lord rested, gazing upon her dead body,

While he divided the flesh of the ... , and devised a cunning plan.

He split her up like a flat fish into two halves;

One half of her he stablished as a covering for heaven.

He fixed a bolt, he stationed a watchman,

And bade them not to let her waters come forth. (4)

The waters of the pagan sea goddess Tiamut in
heaven became the "waters that were above
the firmament" in Genesis 1:7

In Genesis it is the dome, or firmament, that divided the waters and created a solid dam to prevent the waters in space from falling to Earth. In Enûma Eliš the author used imagery of the god Marduk fixing a "bolt" as if locking a door and stationing a watchman to prevent the heavenly waters escaping. But the idea is the same. Half of the waters from Earth were taken up into heaven and prevented from falling down to the Earth.

These are the pagan origins of the solid sky dome created by God in Genesis 1:6 and the extra terrestrial ocean of Genesis 1:7. If we had more clay tablets we would surely know more about these pagan origins of a book that the Christadelphians think is divinely inspired. Let us hope that the work of archaeologists will continue to uncover the truth and expose the myths contained in the Bible.


1. Samuel Noah Kramer. 'Sumerian Mythology'
2. Flavius Josephus. Antiquities of the Jews: Book 1 - Chapter 1
3. Pesahim 94b
4. See:

The Pagan Origins of the Book of Genesis - Part 3:  The creation of humans

There are two entirely different accounts of the creation of man in Genesis. The first is in chapter 1:
26 And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion ..... 27So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them.

The second is in chapter 2:
 7And the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul.

The two accounts are believed by textural scholars to be written by two entirely different authors because of the differences in Hebrew style and the fact that the first account uses "Elohim" for the name of God and in chapter two the author uses "Yahweh."

Needless to say the two accounts contradict each other in many details; but that is not the subject of this article. Sufficient to say that in chapter one God creates mankind as a group ("let them have dominion") but in chapter 2 God initially creates only one man and later his female partner.

This man (Adam) is said to be created in chapter 2 from the "dust of the ground." The Hebrew word "dust" is  "Aphar -  (Strong’s #6083) and is elsewhere translated clay, earth, mud, ashes, earth or ground."

The most likely meaning is "clay" istead of dust because it was the common belief in the ancient Near East, Egypt, Europe and even China that man was created from clay.

For example:
The Egyptian god Khnum creates
a human from clay

1. According to Greek mythology (see Hesiod's poem Theogeny), Prometheus created man from clay, while Athena breathed life into them.

2. According to Chinese mythology (see
Chu Ci and Imperial Readings of the Taiping Era), Nüwa molded figures from the yellow earth, giving them life and the ability to bear children.

3. According to Egyptian mythology the god Khnum creates human children from clay
before placing them into their mother's womb.

4. In the Urgaritic myth of Kirta the god El creates a female demon out of clay to cure a sick king.

5. In the Enûma Elish Babylonian creation myth the god Marduk creates humans from the blood of a slain god and clay.    
However it is the earlier Sumerian creation myths that interest me the most. Abraham was a Sumerian (see Genesis chapter 24); not a Semite or a Babylonian. If there is some truth in the Abrahamic story, then the Hebrews are actually descended from Sumerians. This would account for the many differences between Jews and Arabs and would also explain the intellectual genius of the Jews. The Sumerians were the cleverest people on Earth at the time. Modern Jews are Sumerians living in our own times.

I find that it is the Sumerian creation and flood myths that feature most strongly in the Bible and this is what you would expect given the Sumerian origin of the Jews.

The creation of man
from clay - Tablet 1
The Sumerian composition narrating the creation of man has been found inscribed on two duplicating tablets: one is a Nippur tablet in the American Philadelphia University Museum; the other is in the Louvre. The original myth is reckoned by scholars to have been composed by pagan scholars around 2,650 BC.

There is a later and different Babylonian creation myth (Enuma Elish) in which mankind is created from the blood of one of the gods. This is the text that Ken Gilmore often uses to pretend that the Genesis account of the creation of man is different to the original ANE creation story. But he is wrong. He's overlooked the fact that the blood was mixed with clay. 

However as the Hebrews were ancient Sumerians, I think it much more likely that they would have gone with the ancient Sumerian creation myths rather than the more recent Babylonian myths.

To get back to the Sumerian myth relating to the creation of humans. The original cuneiform tablets are broken and missing in places, but sufficient text remains for us to understand what is described. The god Enki is speaking to him mother Nammu:
O my mother, the creature whose name thou hoist uttered, it exists,
Bind upon it the . . . of the gods;
Mix the heart of the clay that is over the abyss,
The good and princely fashioners will thicken the clay,
Thou, do thou bring the limbs into existence;

Ninmah (the earth-mother goddess) will work above thee,
. . . (goddesses of birth) will stand by thee at thy fashioning;
O my mother, decree thou its (the new-born's) fate,
Ninmah will bind upon it the . . . of the gods,
. . . as man .

 After a break of several lines, where healthy people were created, the poem describes a feast arranged by Enki for the gods, to commemorate man's creation. At this feast Enki and Ninmah drink much wine and become somewhat exuberant. Thereupon Ninmah takes some of the clay which is over the abyss and fashions six different types of individuals, while Enki decrees their fate and gives them bread to eat. The character of only the last two types is intelligible; these are the barren woman and the sexless or eunuch type. The lines read:
The creation of man
from clay - Tablet 2
The . . . she (Ninmah) made into a woman who cannot give birth.
Enki upon seeing the woman who cannot give birth,
Decreed her fate, destined her to be stationed in the "woman house."

The . . . she (Ninmah) made into one who has no male organ, who has no female organ.
Enki, upon seeing him who has no male organ, who has no female organ,
To stand before the king, decreed as his fate.

The original Sumerian myth of the creation of humans is therefore perfectly clear: Humans were created from clay and this is the equivalent of the Hebrew word "Aphar" (clay) that was used as the material from which God originally created Adam in Genesis 2.

Ken Gilmore is wrong to claim:

As a rule, anyone who claims that Genesis "reads like a pagan creation myth adapted to feature the Hebrew God in place of the pagan gods" is ignorant both of the creation narratives and Mesopotamian creation myths. (2)

In these three articles we have examined the original pagan Sumerian cuneiform texts and found within them all of the major themes of the Genesis Hebrew creation myth. The Hebrews were originally Sumerians and their oral traditions from Abraham's home city of Ur (a Sumerian capital city) were carried over into Genesis by it's writers.

Genesis cannot be inspired by God because it is thoroughly pagan in its themes and origin. It cannot be an "anti-pagan polemic" as the Berea-Portal team claim, because it reeks of pagan cosmology and pagan creation myths. The only difference between the Sumerian creation myths and Genesis is that later editors have removed the names of the pagan gods and inserted the names of the Hebrew god. But everything else remains.

Genesis cannot be inspired by a supreme intelligence that created the entire known universe, because it its science and cosmology is obsolete and erroneous by a factor of four and a half thousand years. It is inspired by pagan scribes writing creation myths at least a thousand years and possible two thousand years before Genesis was first penned.

For Christadelphians to imagine that Genesis is an authoritive account of how our universe, earth, life, living species and humans originated is just plain ludicrous. They are basing their faith on pagan lies and mythology.

To be continued -  Part 4: The pagan origin of Noah's Flood.


1. 'Sumerian Mythology by Samuel Noah Kramer.

2. See:

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